Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (2024)

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Wild boars, feral pigs, wild hogs, wild pigs: all these names fit the pua’a of Hawaii. Along with colorful birds, surfing dudes, gorgeous native plants in many colors, and delicious pineapples, Hawaii is also known for the iconic wild boar. The Polynesian island has a long, intriguing history with the animals and tourists flock to see them (and eat them).

Some folks are surprised to learn that these iconic Hawaiian animals are nonnative. Instead, the wild pigs were brought to the island by two different groups in two different eras. The island has never been the same since.

History of Hawaii’s Wild Boars: How Did They Get Here?

It’s believed that the first humans migrated to the Hawaiian islands around 500 to 700 A.D. Coming in double-hulled canoes across thousands of open ocean, the people now known as ancient Polynesians entered the tropical paradise. With them came species of plants and animals from their former homelands. Pua’a, or wild pigs, came first with these people. The animals were then a valuable source of protein, just as they are today. Pigs were introduced and let roam freely within specific confines to keep them controlled and the island safe. Naturally, the mammals are interested in the native and nonnative crops like taro and sweet potatoes, so they had to be contained to prevent crops being destroyed. When new fruits (guavas and mangoes) were introduced, the pig population exploded.

About a millennium later, Captain Cook and his crew arrived in 1778. Noting the pigs commonly seen through the islands, he brought European breeds over as well, hoping to increase the size of the pig breed on the island.

The modern wild boars of Hawaii are the descendants of the two breeds imported by the Polynesian people and the Europeans. The feral pigs thrive in the Hawaiian ecosystem and exist on all main islands except Lana’i. Pua’a are considered one of the earliest nonnative species in Hawaii. By now, they have become invasive, thanks to the fact that these animals reproduce in vast numbers quickly – with something like 15,000 pigs birthed on average in just five years from a single line.

Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (1)

How Many Wild Boar Are There in Hawaii?

According to recent estimates, this thriving species of wild boar has filled out to about 400,000 animals in the Hawaiian islands. The huge number of animals isn’t terribly surprising: pigs are prolific breeders. The average litter size per pig is 7.5, but it’s not uncommon for 12 to 14 piglets to be born.

Gestation of 114 days (less than 4 months) also means the pigs are capable of reproducing a few times of year and they often do have two litters annually.

Wild Boars in Hawaii: A Tourist Attraction

Whether you’re looking to personally encounter a feral pig of Hawaii or not, these mammals have become a huge tourist attraction in the state. Several reasons exist for this.

For one, wild boars draw in hunters looking to experience a unique and exciting type of hunt that they probably can’t experience in at home. The tropical environment, sandy beaches, and incredible foods of the island don’t hurt for drawing in these hunters, either.

Tourists looking to enjoy unique and intriguing wildlife also are drawn to the idea of spotting boar in the wild. Photographers, both amateur and professional, find opportunities to capture the wild pigs in images around the island.

Additionally, the famed roast pig of Hawaiian luaus draws in tourist crowds for another reason: a delicious meal.

Where Do You See Wild Boars in Hawaii?

While out hiking on any of the main islands of Hawaii, save for Lana’i, you may well hear the call of a feral pig. Your movements on bikes and on foot don’t frighten the mammals. In fact, they aren’t afraid of humans in general and so they are far from elusive.

The pigs are widely distributed across the islands, but mostly they show up in wet forests and open mountain pastures. Foraging for vegetation and insects draws them to wild terrain. Looking for lush fruits and delicious food produced by humans draws them toward the urban areas.

Are Wild Boars Problematic in Hawaii?

Unfortunately, the proliferation of wild boar in Hawaii has created massive problems for islanders. The pigs are a huge threat for multiple reasons, one of the largest being that they do not fear humans. This means they won’t hesitate heavily populated areas and frequently make themselves a nuisance in urban areas. Acute damage of property, human injuries, and destruction of crops and farm animals may all be attributed to the wild pigs of Hawaii. And particularly, since they travel in hordes, crops are destroyed by the trampling of hundreds of hooves as the pigs slash their way through fields.

Wild Boar in Hawaii: Impact On the Ecosystem

Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (2)

The Hawaiian ecosystem is under threat by the wild boar of Hawaii. Searching en masse for huge amounts of food results in the pigs thrashing their way through both natural and cultivated food sources on the islands. Digging up roots and tubers, they destroy the local wild plants as well as crops like sweet potatoes and taros.

Many other native plants are destroyed in the process as well, as the boars churn their way through forested lands and natural meadows. All the rooting and digging also prevents new seeds from spreading and taking root so that new plants can become established.

Wild boars also help to spread mosquitoes. Their digging through hallowed out trees creates rain catches which in turn collect the rain runoff and attract the flying pests. These hollows become breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

Are Wild Boars a Danger To Humans?

Though they look kind of cute and seem like they should be harmless to humans, wild pigs have the potential to cause extreme harm to humans. Humans, particularly those traveling alone on foot, are the most vulnerable. Pigs travel in groups, especially the females with their piglets. They should be avoided at all costs. Females are protective of their young and become highly aggressive towards humans and other animals if they feel threatened in any way. Since they aren’t generally afraid of humans, they are known to approach urban areas, even with young in tow. That means you inherently a threat because of being a human. Feral pig attacks may cause severe injury and even death.

Beyond high levels of aggression, wild pigs are also known to carry diseases which may infect humans. E. coli, hepatitis E, influenza A, and brucellosis are among the 45-plus diseases these animals are known to carry and transmit to humans and other animals.

Do Wild Boars of Hawaii Attack People?

Neither male nor female wild boar of Hawaii are more prone to attacking humans than each other. Either may attack humans with no provocation at all, whether they are in herds or roaming solo. Females with young may be more likely to attack, though, if you approach the young. If you see a piglet that is wounded or appears ill, do not approach under any circumstances. These young are particularly prone to provoking attacks by their parents.

If you see a wild boar while out on foot, you should avoid them at all costs. More than 100 cases of wild pig attacks have been reported in the United States, most of which have been unprovoked. Even in the case of wild pig attacks during hunting sessions, 2 out of 5 attacks will be unprovoked. Some of the wild boar attacks have led to deaths. These are somewhat more likely to be severe when a herd is involved rather than an animal acting alone. The attacks often result in trampling the victim to death or trampling to the point of excessive bleeding which leads to catastrophic blood loss.

How to Avoid Wild Pig Attacks

Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (3)

The overabundant wild boar of Hawaii population means that out on designated hiking trails, there’s a high probability you’ll see pig tracks. Wandering off trail makes the chance of meeting a wild boar even more likely. Knowing how to avoid encounters with wild boar could help save your life, particularly if you are hiking or biking solo.

Identifying Pig Tracks

Evidence of digging and lots of foot marks is a sign of wild pigs. The hooves of pigs are cloven, meaning divided into two halves with a gap between.

Pigs wallow in muddy rain forest areas, in soil with root vegetables, and in areas with human food waste.

Listen and Pay Attention

Whenever you hike, you should always pay attention to the noises and sensations around you. While out and about in Hawaii, it’s important to keep your head up and look ahead on the trail before you. Often, pigs may be spotted before you get too close.

You should also keep your eyes roving to the sides of the trails. Wild boars may be rustling in the plant life nearby. Trails running off the path may also indicate the presence of pigs in the area, as these are likely created by the boar.

Notice Mud Rubbings

After wallowing in muddy areas looking for dinner, pigs often will rub their bodies against tree trunks and leave behind muddy impressions. These rubbings indicate the presence of a pig in the area – or many – and may give notice of the how recently they’ve been there. If the mud rubbings are moist, the pig may well still be very nearby.

The rubbings may also help to indicate the size of the animals in the area.

Jump Out of the Way and Climb a Tree

If a startled pig spots you or one comes barreling down the trail toward you, jump out of the way of the path. Immediately hide behind a tree, or better yet, climb it, if possible. This will help you avoid the charge.

Leave the area immediately and seek protection. Pigs charge at humans, but they also bite and gouge people with their tusks. They’re exceptionally fast and agile for being so large and notoriously lethargic animals.

Pigs and Dogs: What Happens?

Dogs and pigs are rarely friends. In fact, most pigs hate dogs and will avoid them. If you have a dog traveling with you, taking them out on walks with you is an excellent idea. The wild boars of Hawaii will smell the dog with you and avoid you.

Wild Boar Regulations

Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (4)

Because all main islands of Hawaii, save Lana’i have feral swine, regulations from the state government have come into play. The destructive nature of the pigs has helped to encourage hunting of feral hogs both in private and public spaces.

The State of Hawaii has its own regulations regarding the lands and the way this land is treated. Each island, as well, will have its own regulations and rules, so its important to understand your options and what boundaries and rules exist. Interestingly, non-residents may have an easier time hunting on private lands for wild boar than residents. Guides are required, though, and all regulations must be followed.

Can You Hunt Wild Boar in Hawaii?

Many Hawaiians consider the hunting of wild boar a way of life – or at least a large part of it. The hunting of the animals has gone on for centuries, passed along as tradition. For nonresidents of Hawaii, hunting guides and experts are typically engaged and may be required by law. If you’re interested in the wild experience of hunting the feral hogs, many outfitters exist and provide access to private and public land with lush scenery.

Guides have safety measures in place to help prevent and protect against wild hog attacks and often bring along dogs for added safety measure. Many companies specifically only use cultural hunting methods, as well, with using dogs and knives, and spears only (no rifles).

Before engaging an outfitter, check their methods and the supplies they provide. Many offer muck boots, safety apparel (including vivid orange shirts or jackets), backpacks, meals and water, and other equipment. If traveling to Hawaii, you may wish to engage one of these outfitters in particular to avoid having to travel with extra gear.

Age restrictions will be given (some have a minimum age of 10 years of age) and walking distances required by each given outfitter. Most also require you to acquire your own hunting license and proof of completion of a Hunter Safety Course from your own state of residence.

Wild boar or hog hunting season varies depending on the island. Check dates and regulations per island before planning your trip. Baiting is allowed, night hunting is prohibited, and in most cases, there is no bag limit.

How Do Hawaiians Serve Wild Boar?

Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (5)

Of course, if you’re not into hunting but still want to enjoy some amazing wild pork, Hawaii is particularly known for eateries featuring the wild animal. Lau lau or kalua pig, for example, are popular traditional meat choices. Both of the dishes feature pork seasoned with Hawaiian salt. The Lau lau pig uses steamed taro leaves. Kalua pig is roasted in the pit or underground oven known as an imu, and seasoned and served while still hot.

Hawaiian Wild Boar Mythology

Deeply entrenched in the culture of Hawaii, the wild boar even appears in Hawaiian mythology.

Hawaiian lore tells the tale of the illegitimate son born to Hina (mother to the demigod Maui), named Kamapua’a. He was born to Hina and her husband’s brother, resulting in Kamapua’a being disowned and called “Hog-child” by Hina’s husband. The boy grew into a handsome man with shapeshifting abilities. Desiring his father’s approval, he used his skills and charm to attempt the feat. Tattooing his face and cloaking himself in animal skins, he murdered Hina’s husband. But his biological father refused to claim him. Angered and saddened, Kamapua’a used his charms to attract women and then destroyed villages and anyone who crossed him.

But the goddess of fire, Pele, caught his attention and Kamapua’a’s anger dissipated and his former beauty returned. Pele, though, was angered and found his newly restored beauty as competition. She banished him, mercifully, to the other side of the Big Island. The Hog-child survived the eruption of Mount Kilauea but believed his beloved Pele was killed by the lava. Deeply sorrowed, he joined the sea to become the humuhumunukunukuapua’a fish (the state fish) which makes pig-like noises. Children are still told this story and associate the pig-like fish noises with the wild boar of Hawaii and the legend of the Hog-child.

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Wild Boars in Hawaii: Where Do They Live and Are They Dangerous? (2024)


Are the wild boar in Hawaii dangerous? ›

Wild pigs are extremely dangerous to humans, especially when traveling alone. Groups of pigs, especially females with piglets, should be avoided as much as possible. Female pigs are very protective of their young and can become very aggressive, and Feral pig attacks can cause serious injury and even death.

Where do wild boars live in Hawaii? ›

The modern wild boars of Hawaii are the descendants of the two breeds imported by the Polynesian people and the Europeans. The feral pigs thrive in the Hawaiian ecosystem and exist on all main islands except Lana'i. Pua'a are considered one of the earliest nonnative species in Hawaii.

What makes wild boar dangerous? ›

Feral swine can carry at least 30 diseases and nearly 40 types of parasites that may affect people, pets, livestock, and wildlife. Some diseases, such as pseudorabies, are fatal to cats and dogs that may be exposed from direct contact with a feral swine carcass.

How many people are attacked by wild boar? ›

Feral hog (also called wild hogs and wild pigs; Sus scrofa) attacks on people are rare and uncommon. In the United States, four people have died from feral hog attacks since the late 1800s—three victims were attacked by a wounded boar while hunting.

What is the most dangerous animal in Hawaii on land? ›

But Hawaii's land-based wildlife is pretty benign. There are no predators, so the most dangerous creature you could encounter on a hike through Maui's wilderness might be a startled wild pig or a centipede—which can give a painful sting, but it won't kill you. No one has ever been maimed by a centipede.

Can wild boars hurt humans? ›

Are wild hogs dangerous? Boars do not typically attack humans, especially if unprovoked. Attacks generally happen when a human (often a hunter) gets too close to a litter of baby pigs or when humans are in the path of a boar running from a threat. Most of the time, however, a hog will run away from a human.

What to do if you see a wild boar Hawaii? ›

Keep a safe distance. Slowly back away from the wild boar. If you have time, try to reach higher ground such as a boulder, car, possibly even climb a tree.

What to do if you encounter a wild pig in Hawaii? ›

Be calm and move slowly away from the animal. Do not approach or attempt to feed the animal. Keep a safe distance and do not corner or provoke the animal i.e. by using a flash while taking pictures of it. If you see adults with young piglets, leave them alone.

Why are feral pigs a problem in Hawaii? ›

For the Hawaiian Island and its rain forest, feral pigs are an invasive species because they eat massive vegetation causing native plant extinction, as well as soil erosion and soil compaction in their tracks. There have been many attempts to control Hawaii's feral pig.

What is a boars natural enemy? ›

Large felines such as leopards, lynxes, and tigers are among the most common predators of the Wild Boar, along with other large carnivores like wolves, bears, and humans.

What are boar afraid of? ›

Notes. Wild boar are afraid of fire, including torches, and will enter the 'frightened' state when it is nearby.

What is the bite force of a wild boar? ›

Wild boars are very intelligent and feature razor-sharp tusks, massive bodies, and strong jaws. There are no records of their bite force, but it's estimated between 200 and 300 psi, similar to a medium to large-sized dog.

What time do hogs come out at night? ›

Wild pigs are generally active at dusk and dawn, but human activity and climatic conditions may cause them to exhibit nocturnal feeding behaviors across portions of their range. In these areas it may be most efficient for hunters to shoot pigs at night under the cover of darkness.

What state has the largest wild boars? ›

In Texas, the state with the largest feral hog population, they cost farmers an estimated $50 million a year in damage.

What is the top predator in Hawaii? ›

Tiger sharks are the most wide-ranging top reef predator in Monument waters, routinely swimming hundreds of kilometers along the Hawaiian Archipelago and out into open ocean. Grey reef and galapagos sharks occasionally cross open ocean between islands but are generally resident at a single island.

What is the only predator in Hawaii? ›

The Hawaiian monk seal is an apex predator and a sentinel species. Its beach is our beach. Its waters are our waters. It eats some of the same food we eat.

What is the most dangerous predator in Hawaii? ›

Relevant to All Islands

For the most part, you are very safe on the Hawaiian Islands from all animal and plant life. There are no large predators or snakes, and there are few plants that will irritate when hiking (no poison oak or ivy, for example).

How do you keep wild hogs away? ›

Start by building fences around your crops, vegetables, and gardens. The fences should be built of metal mesh wiring (often called Swine or Hog Panels) and should be taller than 34 inches (taller can also be good). Reapply Hog Scram as a preventative to repel Hogs from the area.

Can a boar bite you? ›

Wild boars are of course many times larger than Jack or Diane and more aggressive than domestic pigs, but domestics and potbellies have been known to reach bite forces of 200-300 Psi (200-300 pounds of force per square inch!) and can match the bite force of large guard dog breeds such as Rottweilers and Dobermans.

Can boars climb trees? ›

Try and get high: Pigs can't climb, but large ones can work their way up a tree trunk with their front legs to reach objects that are several feet above the ground.

How many boars are in Hawaii? ›

As a result of smaller litters, the state pig crop of 12,000 animals in 2020 decreased by 8.3% to 11,000 heads in 2021.

How fast can a boar run? ›

Adult domestic pigs can run as fast as 11 miles per hour, while their wild boar counterparts (being a bit sleeker) run faster at 15mph!

Do you need a license to hunt boar in Hawaii? ›

Legal hunting hours on private land are the same as on public hunting areas. Hunting on Private Land: Game mammals may be hunted year-round on private land. Hunters must possess a valid State of Hawai'i hunting license and have the permission of the landowner.

Are wild boar good to eat? ›

Unlike its domestic cousin, wild boar is also very lean and low in cholesterol. Wild boar is an excellent alternative to beef and pork for those who want food that is good for them without sacrificing taste and quality. Wild Boar high in protein. They are a good source of monounsaturated fats and zinc.

Can you eat feral hogs? ›

The hogs can be eaten for their meat, but you need to harvest and process them safely. Hunting wild hogs is a popular sport among hunters, as well as a population control method supported by wildlife agencies. The hog meat is a viable food source, though you need to be careful with it.

Where do wild hogs sleep during the day? ›

Where Are Wild Hogs During The Day? Normally, hogs will sleep up to 12 hours during the day in nests made of leaves and straw. But when they are not sleeping, they can be found in thick woods with lots of potential for food like berries, roots, and grubs.

Can you eat feral pigs in Hawaii? ›

On the island of Hawaii the feral pig~ along with the feral goat and sheep, is a major game animal of economic importance to hunters. Pigs are hunted and trapped by many as sources of meat for the table.

Where in Hawaii can you swim with pigs? ›

Pig Beach
Nickname: Pig Beach
ArchipelagoExuma Cays
Total islands1
Major islands1
8 more rows

How big are wild pigs in Hawaii? ›

Tens of thousands of the wild pigs forage and destroy planted crops and native plants, and the pigs, which can weigh as much as 400 pounds, have become a nuisance to homeowners and ranchers, as they have in Texas, where there are at least 2.6 million feral hogs, by far the most of any state, and where they cause more ...

What are boars attracted to? ›

Sweet corn is a staple in hog baits, because hogs can easily recognize the smell. Corn will “sour” once soaked for several days, creating a smell that will attract hogs but keep other animals, such as deer, away.

Do alligators eat feral hogs? ›

Alligators have been known to take a variety of sizes of feral hogs, even being able to catch and kill very large hogs that are swimming across open water. In fact, the open water capture and drowning of feral hogs is probably the most common manner in which this type of predation occurs.

Are hogs afraid of dogs? ›

Feral swine will generally run to avoid conflict with a dog, but if a dog is not restrained and chases the animals then the risk for attack increases. Feral swine can severely injure a dog with their long, sharp tusks.

How do you calm a boar? ›

Throw the boar some berries, mushrooms, and carrots. As the animal is aggressive it will try to attack, so toss it some grub and then back away. This will allow the boar to calm down and it will start to eat.

Can you defend yourself against a boar? ›

If you are attacked by a wild boar, you should fight back using anything you can for self defense such as a stick or hiking pole. Try to stay on your feet and keep fighting until they give up. Most boar attacks are short, lasting less than a minute and you should immediately seek medical attention afterwards.

Can a boar fight a bear? ›

In fact, in the 1920s a feral boar in the Okefenokee Swamp was reported to have killed a black bear in a fight between the two animals. Similar accounts of feral boars killing bears during fights in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas were reported in the 1880s.”

Can a human beat a wild boar in a fight? ›

A large, muscular man CAN fight a wild boar. He can also lose horribly and be cut up real bad and lose a lot of blood…. boars even kill folks every now and then.

How do boars show aggression? ›

In order to establish dominance, boars fight head on, pushing each other with great force and attempting to slash each other with their tusks70,73,74. This form of aggression can be highly costly to both individuals in terms of both injury and losing individuals in terms of reduced reproductive success.

What is the difference between a wild hog and a boar? ›

A boar is a non- castrated male swine. A hog can be either male or female. The only stipulation is that hogs are older and, typically, huge in size. A juvenile pig is generally called a piglet.

What are the signs of wild boar? ›

Wild hogs leave a number of tell-tale signs that can be easily recognized by a landowner. Signs left by wild hogs include wallows and rubs, nests, tracks and scat, and rooting and trampling. Since swine do not have functional sweat glands, they create shallow, muddy depressions to coat their skin with mud (above).

Will lights keep wild hogs away? ›

They often forage for food at night when they can be undisturbed by humans. Nite Guard Solar lights are a great solution. No fencing required! Our lights have been proven time and again to successfully deter wild hogs.

What color lights can hogs not see? ›

Hogs can detect the color blue but struggle with colors on the green and red spectrum. Although pigs do not register red and green light, they are attracted and move towards brightly lit areas opposed to shadowed areas.

Where do hogs go when raining? ›

Hence when it rains, hogs generally venture out to riverbeds, mud puddles, or other places to keep themselves cool. This is one of the reasons why hunters often target this place during their wild hog hunting in Texas.

What US state has the most hogs? ›

Where Are The Most Pigs? Most pigs in the U.S. are kept on farms in Iowa. With a population of 3.16 million humans and 24.6 million pigs, there are almost eight pigs per capita in Iowa.

Do wild hogs eat rattlesnakes? ›

Wild hogs and rattlers are natural enemies, and the hogs have pretty much eaten their fill of Florida rattlesnakes.

What is the best bait for wild hogs? ›

While shelled corn is the “gold standard” of pig baits, practically every species of critter out there also eats corn. Be creative—sour some grain for one bait site, use shelled corn at another or perhaps even try a dry dog food or cheese-based catfish bait in combination with corn or milo.

What happens if you encounter a boar? ›

Keep your distance

The best thing you can do if you spot a wild boar is simply to steer clear of it. If it doesn't move out of the area, you should detour or turn back to give it plenty of space.

Are wild boars friendly to humans? ›

Feral swine have been aggressive towards and even attacked farmers, golfers, hikers, and picnickers. Aggression can be increased when they associate people with food because of handouts and improper waste disposal.

How do you scare wild boars away? ›

There are a few pig repellents that can be used to keep them out of the yard when local problems are small and not too extreme. The options include bad tasting liquid sprays, water sprayers and sound repellers. The water and sound are designed to “spook” them away by making them feel stressed and uncomfortable.

Are boars scared of humans? ›

Wild pigs are generally much more afraid of you than you may be of them, although this may be difficult to remember during and encounter. In many cases, they will elect to flee before you even know they are present.

Are pigs aggressive to humans? ›

Domestic pigs are usually placid but they can become aggressive if disturbed and attack humans producing severe injuries due to trampling, kicking and biting.

How fast can a wild boar run? ›

Fact 3: They Are Notorious Runners And Jumpers. Wild hogs may not look agile, however, they can gain speeds of up to 30 mph. They have also been known to jump over fences that are less than 3 feet high, and researchers have sighted wild hogs making their way out of traps that were 5 to 6 feet high.

What state has the most wild hogs? ›

1. Texas. With over 1.5 million, Texas has more feral hogs than any other state.

Are wild boars good for anything? ›

Wild boar is an excellent alternative to beef and pork for those who want food that is good for them without sacrificing taste and quality. Wild Boar high in protein. They are a good source of monounsaturated fats and zinc.


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